Category Archives: Minstrel

60 Caregiver Issues: Whose Issues Will We Hear?

 

 

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In his recent post Yang brought our attention to PHI’s campaign to educate the public about caregiver issues, and gave us a link to their introductory video.  In that video PHI posed these questions:   

1. How can we ensure caregivers get the training they need?

2. How can we keep care affordable to families? 

3. What data is needed to help policyholders take action? 

While these are important questions, if you ask caregivers themselves why some are leaving the field and others wouldn’t think of entering it, they’ll no doubt raise a different set of issues.  At nearly every conference or webinar I attend I ask about staff-to-resident ratios and caregiver wages.  Usually there is no reply, as if I were speaking from some parallel universe and couldn’t be heard.  If there is a reply it’s on the lines of “Yes, we know.  But it’s complicated.  These things take time. You can’t expect things to change overnight.” 

Yes, there is a shortage of caregivers.  And yes, good care isn’t affordable.  In fact good care can’t be bought.  By that I mean whatever you might be paying, either for in-home care ($20/ hour? $40?) or for care in a long-term care home of some sort ($6,000-10,000/ month), the more care the person needs as health declines, the wider the gap between the person’s needs and the quality of care the person actually receives.   

Everyone is selling solutions like workshops and videos and toolkits and new business models to long-term care administrators or home healthcare systems’ owners.  Some groups are advocating on a state or even national level and some gains have been won.  But from the outcomes I’d say that a lot of the effort is wheel-spinning.  (An increase in the NYC minimum wage for home care workers to $15/hour by 2021??)   Today’s aides have rare luck if they earn $15 an hour and have a regular 40-hour work week.  An aide may have six to ten residents/patients to care for, and many of those will suffer from dementia and/or be unable to walk alone safely or even support themselves standing.  (Yes, I know I’m a broken record…)  Do you know what it’s like to try to wash, toilet, transfer these residents several times a shift, and keep them from falling the rest of the time?  (If not, go back and read CNA Edge.)  This is before we even begin to provide enrichment a la ‘person-centered care.’   

I want the whole healthcare industry – including those championing reform — to acknowledge what the biggest issues are for caregivers: our obscenely low wages and our outrageously onerous, even unsafe, working conditions.  These organizations don’t yet tackle caregivers’ most urgent needs: a living wage, safe work conditions, and a work environment that supports person entered care.  We need to ask them, What are you doing about these issues and what can we CNAs do to support you in this?  

When Malcolm X called for a change in Americans’ attitudes on race and was told that such changes (culture change, if you will) take generations, he reminded us of this: At the beginning of World War II Germany became our enemy and Russia became our ally.  But when the war ended we, America, saw Germany as our ally and Russia as our enemy.  That attitude-change didn’t take even one generation.  The healthcare industry needs an attitude adjustment.  It is not okay for long-term care operators or owners of home healthcare agencies to charge exorbitant fees to clients and return a too-small fraction of these fees as wages to their direct-care workers, while management and professional staff and consultants are handsomely compensated.  It is not okay to hire employees unless you train them in the skills they need to work with the elderly frail, starting with English language skills.  It’s not okay for the industry to tolerate poor work ethics: last-minute callouts; texting while on duty; and most of all, failure to interact with residents in a way that says to them “I love being with you.  Thank you for letting me be part of your life.” 

There are thousands of followers of CNA Edge.  As Yang exhorted us, we need to support PHI in their effort to educate the public about caregiver issues.  Let’s ensure that when they frames their 60 Issues, they don’t airbrush our issues out of the picture they’re drawing.

Who’s the One with Dementia?

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For those who might not have seen the ‘goddess’ of dementia care (imho) Teepa Snow in action yet:  Teepa has a wonderful skit she performs in her training programs.  At these programs the audience members are generally caregivers.  Teepa will play the role of the caregiver while an audience member takes the role of the person with dementia.  (Every caregiver becomes an expert in this role!)

Caregiver, smiling:  “OK, Jeannie, time for bed.  Let’s go to your room.”

Person with Dementia: “No.”

Caregiver: “C’mon, time for bed.”

PwD: “No.”

Caregiver, now frowning:  “Now Jeannie, it’s time for bed.  You know you’re tired.”

PwD: “No, I’m not.”

Caregiver, in a louder voice: “Jeannie, it’s time for bed.  Come with me.  You need to go to bed.”

PwD:  “No!  I’m not going.”

Caregiver, louder still:  “Yes, you are!  It’s bedtime and I have to get you ready for bed!!”

PwD, now pushing and screaming:  “There’s a stranger after me!  He wants to rip my clothes off!  Stop it!  Somebody HELP me!!  I want my Mother, where’s my Mother!!  I want to go home!!”

Caregiver, louder than ever and totally exasperated: “You come with me right this minute!  You are COMING WITH ME NOW!!

As Teepa asks at the end of her role-play: Which person seems to be the one with the cognitive problem?  The one who seems to know what she wants (not to be put to bed yet), or the one who is hell-bent on getting the dementia-impaired resident to change her mind.  The resident probably can’t change her mind at this point, especially not in response to a caregiver who repeatedly sends, in an ever louder and more frustrated voice, the same message: DESPITE YOUR WISHES, I’M GOING TO PUT YOU TO BED NOW.  If anything, the caregiver’s rising frustration triggers the resident’s fight-or-flight instincts.

For CNAs, this is the question of the hour: What do I do when a resident won’t cooperate?  Do I become more and more insistent, and in the process arouse further defiance in the resident?  Maybe I worry “I need to rush.  If I don’t get everyone ready for bed by the end of the shift, the unit manager will be furious with me.”  (PS: Remind her of that person-centered care she’s trying to sell to families—and which the brand new CMS regulations confirm.)  Do I gripe to my co-workers?  Or do I try something new.  We CNAs develop great ‘tricks of the trade.’  My secret weapon is music.  Others try chocolate.   Sometimes a short walk will help.  Or we might initiate discussion of a favorite family photo.  Trial-and-error is the name of the game.  Creative redirection.  The point, as Teepa Snow and Naomi Feil teach us, is to connect with the person.  To empathize with the underlying emotion being expressed and validate that emotion.  To engage the person in an experience they might enjoy before moving back to the ADL.

All this takes time.  But taking time to engage a resident isn’t a frill.  It’s an essential part — the best part, of being a CNA.

Unsafe at any Weight

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I became a CNA at an age at which most people are retired. By this time most CNAs have backs, knees, shoulders that are broken down or on their way to that. On my first day on the job, the CNA I was shadowing asked, “HOW old are you? You’re never going to be able to do this job.” Biologically speaking, I could have been a grandmother to some aides. But I was in better shape than many, in terms of weight and flexibility. Some aides arrived at work groaning, “My back is killing me!” “My knees are soooo bad today.”

 In reality I could do everything a CNA needed to do. But there was one thing I couldn’t / wouldn’t do: move a two-person assist alone. At first the experienced aides helped me. But soon they expected me to care for these residents without help, as they did. There seems to be a machismo culture among aides: “I can do this on my own.” I was saved by the fact that our unit supervisor had posted a list of all residents who needed the assistance of two aides to be moved. When I needed help I asked for it and was given it. But other aides wouldn’t ask me or each other for help, except in the toughest cases.

Who is a two-person assist? A person doesn’t have to weigh much to be a dangerous dead weight when she needs to be moved. Even frail, thin persons become dead weight when they don’t have the bodily strength to stand or the cognitive capacity to follow instructions. The CDC, OSHA and other organizations have developed algorithmic guidelines which state in effect that unless a person is both fully weight-bearing and able to cooperate in the action (that is, able to understand what is needed and able and willing to do what is needed), then the resident needs two persons, sometimes more, and sometimes also requires mechanical equipment, to be lifted, repositioned, transferred. Fellow aides: How often is this the rule of thumb where you work? Given staffing levels, how many of you have time to stop to help others with residents who should, under the guidelines, have the assistance of at least two persons when they are moved? How many of your co-workers have time to help you?

Unfortunately, as far as I’ve been able to learn, failure to provide adequate staffing to ensure two-person assists for all non-weight-bearing residents isn’t an OSHA violation that has any penalty attached to it. This is a guideline and not a mandate. Thus LTC homes might not be as worried about compliance with these guidelines as they are about Medicare rules. But some states might have tighter rules. And guidelines do have some weight in policy-making in LTC homes.

Despite my facility’s two-person assist list and despite all the guidelines, many aides chugged right along, lifting residents without help. Both the resident and the aide are at risk of injury (or at least distress), but aides insist on flying solo. Sometimes we’re our own worst enemies. CNAs: Let’s call a truce with our aching bodies! It’s worth a try to work with our unit supervisors to develop a two-person-assist list, using it to transfer residents more safely and comfortably.

“I’m Just Doin’ My Job”

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One of my all-time favorite movie lines was spoken by Paul Newman in Cool Hand Luke.  Luke, the non-conforming prisoner in a tough southern prison, refuses to accept the prison’s status quo.  His conduct is a cascade of rebelliousness, until finally the warden orders Luke to “the box.”  The box is a small tin-roofed building, the size of an outhouse, under the blazing sun in the middle of the hot, dry prison yard.  After Luke spends twenty-four punishing hours in the box, the guard releases him.  As he does he says, “Sorry Luke, I’m just doin’ my job.  Ya got to appreciate that.”  Luke replies,  “Nah, callin’ it your job don’t make it right, Boss.”   

Calling it our job doesn’t make things right.  Among the most pernicious problems in long-termcare homes is staffing shortages.  With a census of 25 to 35 residents or patients needing skilled nursing and/or dementia care, there might be only three to five aides scheduled to work a shift.  (Then there are the last-minute call-outs).  If the aide is lucky, very lucky, she may have only five or six persons to care for.  The more frequent reality is having seven to ten persons needing care.  Remember that cacophony of call bells that May wrote about?  Blame it on short-staffing.  And the resident pleading for you to take her to the toilet?  Oops, it’s already too late…  The resident teetering perilously as we rush to prevent a fall? … And the time you lifted a non-ambulatory person by yourself because there was no one around to help?  What about those wheelchair bound residents who haven’t been taken out to feel the fresh air in weeks?  The hits just keep on comin’.   And we keep right on keepin’ on, because it’s our job; right?   

No, it isn’t.  We simply can’t do our jobs as CNAs adequately when we’re so understaffed.  What most determines the quality of care is the staff-to-resident ratios (‘duh’).  I challenge anyone to find an aide who disagrees with this.   Yes, staff need to be trained in good care practices.  Yes, we need to have certain supplies available (soap, towels, functioning hospital beds, appealing food, etc.).  But the key to quality care, to person-centered care is PERSONS.  Staff.  

We continue to work in short-staffed conditions we know violate our residents’ right to good care.  (See medicare.gov for a description of rights of persons in nursing homes.)  If we ‘complain’ to management about short staffing (and that’s how it’s viewed, as a petty complaint), we’re told sweetly that the staffing levels meet the state requirements.  And that’s probably true, because industry lobbyists have made sure that state regulators don’t burden the long-term-care industry with costly staffing requirements.

We complain about these deplorable conditions all the time.  As CNAs we’re mandated reporters of abuse.  (I guess we’d better not think about that one too much!)  But we tolerate abuse that residents endure as a result of understaffing.  Abuse isn’t just about physical or sexual assault.  It’s also about neglect and emotional abuse.  If I neglect a call bell for so long that a resident is left to soil himself and remain in his soiled condition for hours, that is abuse.  If I say to a resident who asks to be taken to the toilet, “Janie, I just put a clean Depends on you; I can’t get you back into the Hoyer lift and take you to the toilet, you have a diaper on, you can use that,” that is abuse.  Abuse is ridiculing a resident who cries for her mother all afternoon; scolding a resident who spills her drink all over the floor; ignoring the call bell of a resident who constantly asks to be taken to the toilet minutes after the last toilet trip, because we know she ‘doesn’t really have to go.’  Well, she needs something and it’s our job as aides to find out what.  “But I don’t have time for all that.  I have seven other residents to get to.  I’m just doin’ my job.”  

So what can we do?  Unlike the workers of the 1920’s and ’30’s, we can’t go on strike to win better working conditions.  We’re caring for the sick and the frail, not assembling cars.  But if we can’t leave the floor for a sit-down strike, we can use our cell phones as weapons in the revolution for better care.  Call your county or state abuse hotline every time aides have more than six residents to care for on a shift.  (And don’t count the LPN or Medication Aide in your ratio if she isn’t providing care, even if management does.)  The state regulators aren’t always thrilled to receive reports of abuse because they are short-staffed too, and don’t have the means to investigate all complaints properly.  They don’t always to a good job, for the same reasons we don’t always: because they’re understaffed and a little intimidated by their bosses.  

Revolution isn’t about violence and nastiness. (Remember Gandhi and Mandela and Rosa Parks.)  It’s about patient persistence and never giving up as long as change is needed.  It means taking that first step.  Maybe our first step will be a phone call.  

Cueing for Caring

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I volunteer in a long-term care home which serves, among others, those with dementia.  The aides in this home have had dementia training and the care level is already exceptional.  I think this is because management expects the aides to…well, to care — not just to ‘provide care,’ and because management models this value.  Still, the nursing supervisor wanted a performance boost.  Training.  

Aides benefit from understanding dementia and from exposure to the best ideas on dementia care.  But what’s most important about staff education is that their new knowledge lead to new workplace habits.  Training that doesn’t result in improved care is about ‘CYA’ compliance for CMS, not about caring.  How do we ensure that training actually improves how we do our jobs?  How do we transfer the training lessons from the training site to the workplace?  As a reinforcement tool, cueing is used very effectively in memory support homes which adopt Montessori methods.  Are there some short-and-sweet (and fun) cueing tools we might use to reinforce training? 

If there were just a few practices that would transform care, I believe it’s those illustrated in the poster below.  These are tried-and-true best-care practices from experts like Teepa Snow and Naomi Feil.  Let’s try turning these ideas into cues to use where we work: nurses’ stations, employee lounges, food prep areas, in the laundry, at the time clock.  Hanging icons separately in the halls—for example, the little cheerleader—may remind us all to encourage and praise residents’ efforts.  We’d be surrounded by encouraging reminders.  Cues keep us mindful of the kind of environment that is most beneficial for all residents, especially those with dementia.  

Along with cueing, another way to reinforce training lessons is the use of rewards of some kind.   The next step is to develop a rewards program for aides who go the extra mile to use these ‘care commandments.’  This is trickier but surely warranted for aides working to create an environment that says, “We Love Our Residents.”

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Comfort and Joy

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At the end of my first year of work as a CNA, when it came time for my job evaluation, I was asked what my job goals were.  I wrote, my goal as a CNA was for my residents to go to sleep smiling.  Whatever the rest of the day might have been like, bedtime belonged to me.  I wanted each resident to fall asleep feeling loved.  As we did the bedtime ADLs I played lullabies on my IPod.  I hoped that some positive feeling would stay with them through the night.  

How horrible it must be for a person’s last experience of the day to be one of distress because someone rushed them, tugged at them impatiently, scolded them to hurry.  Didn’t smile.  Didn’t speak to them by name, maybe hardly made eye contact. Didn’t wish the resident goodnight as they left the room.  (Didn’t kiss them goodnight!)  Dementia can be a world of isolation, confusion, fear. 

Confusion and fear, or love and joy: which will be my residents’ last companions of the day?  We all know what kind of aides we want to be.  But we let ourselves be pushed by ‘the system’ into being the kind of aides we ourselves don’t like.  Don’t!  Giving even just an extra two minutes to each resident, what a difference we might make at the end of their day.  

There must be joy!  For the sake of our residents.  And for the sake of our own joy-seeking souls.

The Magic of Music in the Chaos of Long Term Care

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Being a new CNA is challenging.  Yes, in training I learned how to make a hospital bed with a mannequin in it.  To wash my hands according to procedure.  To transfer fellow trainees with a gait belt.   But now I’m in the unit, needing to transfer a dear little wheelchair-bound lady who can no longer speak and who, while petite, is a dead weight when I try to lift her.  And she is contracted.  Her arms remain tight at her side as I try to undress her.  Who is more distressed, ‘Goldie’ or me?  

Goldie, in her mid-90’s, is still a beautiful-looking woman with twinkly eyes and a smile that glows.  So as I work with her I sing “Glow little glow-worm glow and glimmer” to her.  (Are the Mills Brothers spinning in their graves?)  I’m not sure Goldie gets the words at this point, but I’m laughing as I sing and she laughs back.  She relaxes.  I open my arms wide to invite a hug and Goldie opens hers!  Now I can get her blouse off.   Mission Accomplished!  I don’t know what made me sing to Goldie that first time, except that she was such a sparkly person that being with her made me happy.   My singing is not a pretty sight.  But as one musician said to me, “They don’t care what you sound like if you love them.”    

Soon I was singing to all my residents as I did ADLs (Activities of Daily Living: bathing, dressing, toileting, eating).  Sometimes a resident would sing along.  Yes, this did mean that it took me longer than it took other aides.  One of my caregiver-mentors would say to me, “We don’t have time to talk to the residents.  We don’t have time to sing to them.”  But I persisted (quietly) and began to carry my IPOD nano and a small wireless speaker with me.  Now we had hundreds of songs, sung by the voices these residents might recognize: Frank Sinatra, Rosemary Clooney, The Mills Brothers, Judy Garland, etc. etc.  One morning as I brought residents to the dining room for breakfast I played Oh What a Beautiful Morning.  Soon the room was singing!  And smiling.  In time other aides began asking, “Do you have your music with you today?”   For one thing, I think they liked some of this old music.  And they saw that residents often became calmer and more cooperative when they felt ‘sunny.’  Music does that, connecting us to each other and to our memories.  

As my IPOD played the Marine Hymn or Anchors Aweigh, veterans walked to the dining room with new determination.  Accompanied by a waltz, a resident with unsteady legs could be coaxed to move more confidently.  Sometimes we can engage a resident with a song we know she enjoys, singing together as we walk to the toilet.  Because we’re in the midst of something pleasant, a resident might hardly notice that an ADL she usually resists is about to happen.

Some residents can no longer speak; they might no longer understand language.  The saddest reality is that some can no longer hear.  (Even then, rhythms might be felt.)  Not every musical event works every time with every resident.  Nevertheless, with many residents, music can be magical in its effect.   Music has a profound positive effect so often, that it seems crazy not to try it.  

When I am old and grey and full of sleep… (thank you Mr. Yeats), they can take my food, they can have even my books.  But I want my music.   

In the Souls of the Speechless

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Tom Kitwood, the English minister-turned-social-worker who pioneered the person-centered model of dementia care, believed that “…people with dementia, rather than being seen as debilitated, should be embraced for what they can teach the cognitively intact. They invite us “to return to aspects of our being that are much older in evolutionary terms: more in tune with the body and its functions, closer to the life of instinct. … in advanced Western societies, where a sense of community is often weak, the evident frailty of people with dementia generates fear; this unease is socially managed by turning the demented into nonpersons, who are warehoused in nursing homes and pathologized… .”  The problem…“is not that of changing people with dementia, or of ‘managing’ their behavior; it is that of moving beyond our own anxieties and defenses, so that true meeting can occur, and life-giving relationships can grow.”   (From Rebecca Mead’s “The Sense of an Ending,” The New Yorker., May 20, 2013.)

In 2007 my 86-year-old uncle had his first disturbing episode of confusion.  Over the next few years he became more confused and forgetful.  Eventually he needed help with what the healthcare community calls ADLs: Activities of Daily Living.  Bathing, dressing, toileting, eating. Socializing. Alleviating boredom.  Everything.  I became his caregiver.  In 2011, when I could no longer lift him after his falls, I moved my uncle to a memory-support home.  Visiting him, I found that I loved interacting with the residents.  One day when the residents gathered in the TV room, I played a Lawrence Welk DVD for the group.  Spontaneously, the residents began to tap their feet and sing.  Residents who no longer spoke, sang along.  People who couldn’t remember their own names remembered the words of the music they’d once sung or danced to.  Dementia professionals knew this, but at the time I didn’t: when other memory function is lost, the memory of music remains and can sometimes revive other memories or feelings.  Magic!  So this would be my next career: I would be a minstrel in memory care homes.  I got an accordion and became a CNA. 

Over the years I’ve had several careers and many jobs.  Each to me was an exciting adventure.  None was as transformative as this one.  For me, working among those with dementia has been, to borrow Kitwood’s word, life-giving.  

My sister would ask, “Why do you like being with those people so much?”  I’d remind my little sister: “When I visit you, you tell me, ‘Donna, you have to do something with your hair.  You need to cut your hair, color your hair, curl your hair.  And you need to get yourself some new clothes.’  When I visit Tom’s place the residents say, ‘You look beautiful today!  What a lovely outfit!  (That would be my jeans and T-shirt.)  I love your hair that way!’ ”   

But it was something else.  For those with dementia, as Kitwood discerned, instinct becomes the operative principle.   Not rationality.  Not the politeness or other filters we rely on to keep us socially acceptable and safe.  Not previously learned defense responses; these are forgotten.  Those residents were without duplicity.  They responded to kindness freely, without suspicion, without wiles.  Around them I felt freer to be myself in ways I usually didn’t.  There wasn’t the need for all that learned guardedness and reserve.  Those with dementia seem to return to a time, a place within, of more transparency.  As the great dementia-care gurus Naomi Feil and Teepa Snow tell us, those with dementia can no longer enter our world; we must enter theirs.  As we do, like them we may come closer to our own less constructed, less artificial selves.   

The experience of dementia is heartbreaking and not to be romanticized.  But I see dementia as more than a tragic incurable disease.  For me exposure to dementia has been a healing gift.  I wonder whether it’s also a final healing for those whose vulnerabilities it exposes.  Dementia takes so much.  It divests one of a lifetime of accumulated knowledge.  The ego’s accomplishments fade.  The trappings of cognition loosen.  Even identity changes.  What remains?  We have little idea of what is happening in the souls of the speechless.  But their losses parallel what Buddhist, Christian, Jewish and Islamic mystics seek.  Detachment from vanities, from ambitions, from past and from future. We need only to be present to the moment. Soon this is all the person with dementia will have left. Should we see dementia’s passage as one of loss, or one of grace? 

See No Evil, Hear No Evil … Fix No Evil

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As aging impacts physical and cognitive health, many of us will eventually live in long-term care homes.  Thanks to poor standards of care, most people dread this prospect.  To improve care, experts advocate a person-centered model of care as an alternative to the traditional medical model.  Moving from one care model to the other calls for culture change.  Last year I visited the website of a leading culture change organization for information on their annual conference.  It was discouraging to see that among their many events, none included one of the critical elements of culture change, CNAs: our workloads, wages, and caregiving standards.  Hour after hour, day in and day out, CNAs are key caregivers.  Without us, there can be no culture change.  Yet CNAs aren’t heard.  Here is one CNA voice.

I first became familiar with LTC homes when a family member needed care.  I explored many places to find him a good home, then visited him frequently.  Since then I’ve worked in LTC homes and gone into others as a hospice volunteer.  When my uncle moved to a memory care home, I saw the aides who cared for him as angels: they did for my uncle and the other residents what we family members no longer could.  They did this with magical skill and saintly kindness.  And for wages that were obscenely sub-standard.  I was enormously grateful to them.  But in these years of being in and out of long-term care homes, this is what I’ve also seen: aides who sit talking to each other or texting while residents sleep in front of TVs or sit staring into space, alone.  I’ve seen a resident fall because an aide was busy texting.  Aides spend mealtimes noisily socializing with each other instead of engaging with residents, most of whom (at least in memory units) need some level of assistance.  Some aides announce, by their behavior, “Once she’s bathed and dressed and in the dining room, once he’s fed and toileted: once the ADLs are completed, it’s my time.”  Sometimes instead of interacting with residents, aides simply take time apart to rest.  It’s not that aides are intentionally mean or abusive.  And comradery among aides isn’t a perk; it’s essential.  But on every shift there are failures in attentiveness to residents, failures to engage them in an enriching way, lost opportunities for Creating Moments of Joy, as Jolene Brackey has written. 

Some will object, “Not in OUR facility!  We have awesome aides who go out of their way every day to make life better for residents.”  Yes, aides are often inspirationally caring.  But too frequently the quotidian reality is lackluster care, not the person-centered care promised.  Tellingly, the administrators who dispute this picture are often conspicuous for their absence from the daily fray.

Here’s something else I see: thanks to abysmal wages, many aides work two jobs.  Where I live, starting wages are $9 to $12 an hour.  Self-employed aides can earn more, but have no benefits.  Full-time aides are sometimes scheduled to work only 32 hours a week, to avoid overtime when an aide is asked to work a double shift to cover for someone who calls out at the last minute.  Many aides have children at home to care for.  By the time the aide starts his or her shift, which typically involves caring for six to ten residents, she is already tired in body and spirit.  How can this aide bring to work the physical and emotional energy needed to care for the chronically ill, the elderly frail, the cognitively impaired?  Is this what you want for your parent or spouse, or yourself?

How to improve care?  Administrators provide innovative training programs.  Workshops offer state-of-the-art information and creative care ideas.  Two questions not examined:  1. How do we get aides to buy into culture change and embrace person-centered care, once the trainer leaves?    2. Where do we find the money to increase staffing and pay direct-care workers a living wage, one that honors the physical and emotional demands they meet every day?  

Culture change seems focused primarily on training of direct-care workers and renovations to the physical environment.  A more effective approach might come from a change in what we expect of leadership.  Once upon a time, ‘Management-by-Walking-Around’ was the mantra.  An effective manager was expected to circulate on the factory or office floor, paying attention.  Not spying on employees, not micro-managing, but noticing things.  Sensing conflicts and stresses before these undermine performance.  Offering feedback when needed.  In care homes, how often do you see someone on hand whose role is to encourage, compliment, coach or critique?  To see that necessary supplies are on hand.  To offer an on-the-spot performance suggestion, transforming a moment of poor care into an opportunity to reinforce good care skills, per Teepa Snow’s  coaching model.  And at times, with a chronic slacker, to go down the road of discipline.  How much do managers engage with direct-care workers? 

Today’s code word for good care is engagement: aides need to engage with residents.  If administrators aren’t modeling this by meaningful interactions with direct-care workers, will aides believe that engagement is to be the ethos in their workplace?

We can’t improve what we don’t see.  If administrators don’t see the problems, it might be because they are buried in ‘CYA’ paperwork, medication management, marketing efforts, and time-stealing meetings.  Sometimes their offices are in some distant realm of the facility.  Culture-changing organizations might hire a clerk for paperwork and scheduling, freeing the front-line manager for a more constructive presence among staff.  Give this manager a mandate to convert ‘person-centered care’ from a slogan to a fact.   

Can LTC homes provide person-centered care, without the personnel?  Staffing levels are egregiously low.  They may meet states’ woeful requirements but we all know they are inadequate to ensure patient safety, let alone the person-centered care everyone espouses.   Inadequate staffing also leads to on-the-job injuries and CNA burnout.  Are any of the culture-change conferences addressing these issues?  Are leaders lobbying for better staffing and better wages for their CNAs?

Ah, wages!   One is tempted to wonder whether managers tolerate poor performance out of guilt or shame for what they pay their aides.  Even compassionate professionals don’t want to mention the issue of wages in public.  It may seem too daunting and discouraging a challenge—and an embarrassment.  Compensation levels reflect the fact that the job doesn’t require high-level academic or technical credentials.  But aides shouldn’t be thought of as unskilled.  Our skills lie in meeting the global needs of residents who are sometimes completely dependent on us.  A good aide needs to excel in kindness, patience, gentleness, flexibility, effective time management, communications creativity, appreciation for the diverse ethnic, racial, religious, cultural backgrounds of those in our care.  We care for residents regardless of their illnesses or diseases.  We don’t need to describe here the physical tasks we perform, sometimes difficult, often unpleasant.  When the person has dementia, the challenges are doubled, tripled.  We’re accountable to employers, to families, and to our residents.  Not everyone is up to the job.  Wages should reflect the importance of this work and the competencies it requires.  We need a mindset conversion among executives who still think it’s acceptable to sustain their LTC organizations by reliance on a bare-boned staff of underpaid workers who need public assistance to supplement their wages.  Care homes charge their CNAs to respect the dignity of residents.  What about respect for the dignity of CNAs, starting with a living wage?

“Where will we get the money to raise wages and increase staffing?” ask horrified LTC operators. The question is valid.  However, it begs the further question: How much are you spending now, and for what?  Until there is budget transparency (another piece of culture change), the industry’s position that these proposals aren’t affordable, isn’t credible or convincing.  Their question should be not the end of the discussion, but the beginning.  Reviewing the content of culture-change workshops, we don’t see these issues on agendas.  No one wants to touch staffing or wage issues.  Could it be that the profit motive plays too big a part in the culture of some LTC organizations? 

This isn’t rocket science: Be as zealous about improving supervision, staffing, and wages as you are about upgrading the chandeliers and countertops and holding conferences.  Put your assets where you claim your values are.  (Make your budget transparent!)  Invite CNAs to be co-leaders in culture change.  Then we might see culture change that leads to transformed care, transformed lives.  

Validation for the Cognitively Intact

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Minstrel

I work on the dementia-care side of things.  One day an aide I was working with tried repeatedly to debate one of our dementia-unit residents about why she should just go and sit down and finish her lunch.  The resident left the table, the aide went after her.  The resident got up from the table again, again the aide brought her back, all the while scolding her.  This happened a number of times in the space of a few minutes.  I finally said to the aide, “Mary doesn’t want to sit at the table.  And we aren’t supposed to insist on keeping her there if she wants to leave.”  The resident was unhappy; her aide was unhappy.  Now I was unhappy with that aide.  And that aide was unhappy with me.  

I thought to myself, “I wouldn’t snap at a resident that way; why would I snap at the aide?”  I recalled something from my dementia training program.  One day the trainer asked, “Has anyone been able to use anything we’re learning, in your workplace?”  I thought of something that had happened that week on the train.  In front of me there was a little boy, three or four years old.  He was delighting in everything: in all he saw out his window, and in those of us sitting nearby.  Then his mother focused on this adorable, giggly little boy.  “Georgie, get over here.  Georgie, be quiet!  Georgie, sit still!”  In reality, little Georgie was actually pretty quiet and well behaved.  The only thing he was doing was enjoying his train ride!  But Mom kept on and on at Georgie for every little innocent move he made.  

Brimming with new knowledge, I was tempted to say, “Ma’am, scolding Georgie won’t work.  Repeating the scoldings won’t work.  Scolding him in a louder voice won’t work.  Georgie needs to be validated!”  [A common practice in dementia care.]  “Smile at Georgie.  Engage him; ask him what’s making him feel so happy.  Maybe give him a hug and tell him how glad you are that he’s so happy!  And soon Georgie may very well be focused on you instead of stretching backward to see all of us.”   

This was a Eureka moment for me: dementia-care training offers great lessons for relating to a child, to everyone, not just those with dementia.  This might sound condescending.  But dementia-care training is about how to transform resistance, stubbornness, and defensiveness in those who feel demeaned or threatened by us or confused by our demands — into cooperation.  We stay calm and positive.  We validate how the other is feeling.  We try to understand what the person is really trying to tell us when he rejects our attempts to get him to obey our wishes.  Instead of perpetuating the conflict, we try to discover—or create!—common interests.  Those who work among persons with dementia—and in any LTC setting that is most of us—become creative communicators.   Validating communication helps with dementia residents, and it might help us communicate more effectively with our families, our friends, our co-workers, even our supervisors.  (Now that would be sweet irony!)